National Institutes of Health

Take care of your senses: The science behind sensory loss and dementia risk

Take care of your senses: The science behind sensory loss and dementia risk Alison Abraham, Ph.D., M.S., M.H.S., associate professor of epidemiology and ophthalmology at the University of Colorado School of Public Health, has long studied the relationship between the eyes and the brain. She is a principal investigator with the NIA-funded Eye Determinants of Cognition (EyeDOC) Study. Abraham has a family history of vision problems that has fueled her personal interest in how vision loss affects emotional well-being, physical functioning, social interaction, and brain health. In her work, she collaborates with community groups and care providers on strategies for increasing routine vison screening and broadening access to vision care for older adults.  Credit: Vascular details from a retinal eye scan. Image provided by Alison Abraham, Ph.D., M.S., M.H.S., University of Colorado School of Public Health Abraham’s research focuses on the retina, the area at the rear of the eyeball that relays visual information through the optic nerve to the brain....

Baylor College of Medicine Receives NIH Grant for for In vivo investigation of fallopian tube transport

Baylor College of Medicine Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $67,582 for In vivo investigation of fallopian tube transport. The principal investigator is Dierdre Scully. Below is a summary of the proposed study.   The overall objective of this study is to investigate the role of cilia in the fallopian tube (oviduct) in vivo. To accomplish this, my lab has developed a highly innovative, high resolution volumetric optical imaging method that provides unprecendented 4D resolution of the oviduct in its native state. Cilia are traditionally considered to generate the driving force required for oocyte/embryo transport, a theory reinforced by ciliopathy-associated infertility. While there are studies that identify muscular contractions as the predominant factor for transport, recent research conducted in mouse models with weakened ciliary beating demonstrated incomplete transport of ovulated oocytes, and as a result, the current consensus surrounding the control of tubal transport is divi...

Fast and slow light-induced changes in murine outer retina optical coherence tomography: complementary high spatial resolution functional biomarkers

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Fast (seconds) and slow (minutes to hours) optical coherence tomography (OCT) responses to light stimulation have been developed to probe outer retinal function with higher spatial resolution than the classical full-field electroretinogram (ERG). However, the relationships between functional information revealed by OCT and ERG are largely unexplored. In this study, we directly compared the fast and slow OCT responses with the ERG. Fast responses [i.e. the optoretinogram (ORG)] are dominated by reflectance changes in the outer segment (OS) and the inner segment ellipsoid zone (ISez). The ORG OS response has faster kinetics and a higher light sensitivity than the ISez response, and both differ significantly with ERG parameters. Sildenafil-inhibition of phototransduction reduced the ORG light sensitivity, suggesting a complete phototransduction pathway is needed for ORG responses. Slower OCT responses were dominated by light-induced changes in the external limiting membrane to retinal ...

Patterns of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Preperimetric Open Angle Glaucoma: A Comparative Study With Young-Age-Onset and Old-Age-Onset Eyes

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Précis: Optic coherence tomography imaging in preperimetric open angle glaucoma (OAG) differed between young-age-onset and old-age-onset eyes. Inferior and superior quadrants were thinner in young and old-age-onset eyes, respectively. Understanding the specific patterns of early glaucomatous damage based on age-at-onset may improve glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring. Purpose: To investigate the patterns of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thinning in preperimetric OAG by optical coherence tomography based on age at onset (“young-age onset (<40 y)” vs. “old-age onset (≥40 y)”. Materials and Methods: The RNFL and GCIPL deviation images were acquired by Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography, and overlaid, thus converted to a “deviation frequency map”, respectively. The topographic thinning patterns and parameters of RNFL and GCIPL thickness measurements were compared. Results: A tot...

Normative Vascular Features on OCT Angiography in Healthy Nepalese Eyes

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Purpose: To establish normative data on morphological characteristics and quantitative parameters of Foveal Avascular Zone (FAZ) as well as their systemic and ocular associations using OCT angiography (OCT-A) in healthy Nepalese subjects. Patients and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, population-based study recruiting 210 healthy samples (420 eyes) aged 10 to 70 years was conducted. All the samples underwent detailed comprehensive eye examination followed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) and Enhanced Depth Imaging performed in each eye using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Foveal avascular zone area and vessel density in superficial and deep retinal plexus and Sub foveal Choroidal Thickness (SFCT) were evaluated. Ocular and systemic associations of these parameters were also studied in a multivariate analysis utilizing linear regression. Results: The mean superficial and deep FAZ area was 459.96 ± 124.75 μm (95% confidence interval [C...

CLIMBing to new heights: new Beckman center to break barriers in imaging technology

Researchers from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign will use funding from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health to establish a new national collaborative Biomedical Technology Research Resource to develop label-free optical imaging technologies for medical and biological applications. Development of the Center for Label-free Imaging and Multi-scale Biophotonics , known as CLIMB, was a joint effort between Stephen Boppart , a professor of electrical and computer engineering and bioengineering; Mark Anastasio , a professor of bioengineering; Rohit Bhargava , a professor of bioengineering; and the late Gabriel Popescu, who was a professor of electrical and computer engineering. The center’s primary goal is to create optical and computational imaging technologies that can serve as a resource for clinicians as well as other investigators in the biological and medical sciences. The interdisciplinary team members...

BME’s Larin Pioneers Imaging Techniques Of Fetal Brain And Cornea

Under the direction of Kirill Larin , high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is having an extended moment. During the past 20 years, the University of Houston professor of Biomedical Engineering has masterminded its growth from a tool that examines only the retina to one that can measure an incredibly large variety of internal organs, ranging from fetal hearts to neural tubes. With OCT, no biopsies are needed; no invasive measures are taken. Instead, the imaging technique uses light waves to take cross-section pictures and deliver 3D images. And though Larin has been pushing the limits of OCT’s capabilities for more than two decades, he is just getting started. More than $5 million in new investments in his work set him up to develop OCT to peer into the fetal brain to assess how it is impacted by maternal drinking and smoking. He is also bringing the technology into clinical settings to diagnose and prevent eye disease. Preventing, Reversing Impact of Alcohol and ...

Association of Optical Coherence Tomography–Measured Fibrovascular Ridge Thickness and Clinical Disease Stage in Retinopathy of Prematurity

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Importance Accurate diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is essential to provide timely treatment and reduce the risk of blindness. However, the components of an ROP examination are subjective and qualitative. Objective To evaluate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT)–derived retinal thickness measurements at the vascular-avascular junction are associated with clinical diagnosis of ROP stage. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional longitudinal study compared OCT-based ridge thickness calculated from OCT B-scans by a masked examiner to the clinical diagnosis of 2 masked examiners using both traditional stage classifications and a more granular continuous scale at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Hospital. Infants who met ROP screening criteria in the OHSU NICU between June 2021 and April 2022 and had guardian consent were included. One OCT volume and en face image per patient per eye showing ...

Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Screening for Barrett’s Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy

Massachusetts General Hosptial Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $643,503 for Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Progressors with Multimodality Tethered Capsule Image-Guided Biopsy. The principal investigator is Guillermo Tearney. Below is a summary of the proposed study. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a deadly cancer that is preceded by a metaplastic change called Barrett's esophagus (BE). It has long been thought that endoscopic screening for BE followed by endoscopic surveillance can significantly decrease the mortality of EAC. This unfortunately has not borne out as the cost and inconvenience of conscious sedation prohibits endoscopy from being used as a population-based screening tool. BE screening may become possible in the future, owing to innovative swallowable tethered capsule endomicroscopes or cell sampling devices that can detect BE without requiring sedation. Yet, even if these capsules were to identify the large number of people in the US who have BE (~15M), endoscopic ...

Duke University Receives NIH Grant for Robotic Point-of-Care OCT

Duke University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $97,825 for Robotic Point-of-Care OCT. The principal investigator is Mark Draelos. Below is a summary of the proposed study. The PI was previously funded by the F30 mechanism while completing the Duke Medical Scientist Training Program. He has since completed medical school and internship and now returns for a full-time research career. This career development proposal is an effective continuation of the PI’s prior mentored training and research experience and seeks to develop him into an independent investigator. The proposed project concerns the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in retinal disease screening. Preventable retinal blindness affects tens of millions of Americans and hundreds of millions worldwide. Its top three causes are chronic, progressive conditions that yield irreversible vision loss after an initial asymptomatic period. Annual screening is therefore essential to detect and treat these diseases before s...

University or Rochester Receives NIH Grant for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography

University or Rochester Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $51,752 for Investigation of Brain Elasticity in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Enabled by Optical Coherence Elastography. The principal investigator is Gary Ge. Below is a summary of the proposed study. The rapidly advancing field of “elastography” has had some major successes in answering basic science questions and improving clinical diagnostics and therapies. For example, increased liver stiffness is strongly correlated with advanced liver disease such as fibrosis, increased aortic stiffness has been linked with cardiovascular disease, and multiple cancers can be assessed with viscoelastic heterogeneity. Other studies have used the physical properties of tissue to investigate the relationship between structure and function, such as muscle contraction and corneal refraction of light. However, changes in the local and global biomechanical properties of brain tissue associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases...

Duke University Receives NIH Grant for $504,051 for Secondary Data Analysis for Neonates with Retinal OCT Imaging

Duke University Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $257,350 for Secondary Data Analysis for Neonates with Retinal OCT Imaging. The principal investigator is Cynthia Toth. Below is a summary of the proposed study. The Secondary Data Analysis for Neonates with Retinal OCT Imaging includes data from 330 infant participants previously enrolled into prospective observational studies which included use of investigational OCT devices for imaging at the bedside. These data have been divided into two groups: the Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Group and the Healthy Term Infant Group. The ROP Group consists of data from 239 preterm infants evaluated for ROP from the following studies: The Hartwell Foundation funded Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Infant Eyes: A Practical Diagnostic Tool and Methodology, the Research to Prevent Blindness funded Association of Inflammatory Markers and Cystoid Macular Edema in Very Preterm Infants, a pilot National Center for Research Resourc...

University of Illinois at Chicago Receives NIH Grant for Differential artery-vein analysis in OCT angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy

University of Illinois at Chicago Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $250,000 for Differential artery-vein analysis in OCT angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy. The principal investigator is Xincheng Yao. Below is a summary of the proposed study. This is an administrative supplement application for the R01 project, entitled ‘Differential artery-vein analysis in OCT angiography for objective classification of diabetic retinopathy’ (R01EY030842). The purpose of this supplement application is to add artificial intelligence (AI) topic research for enhanced retinal image construction and automated artery-vein analysis. Potential impact of the proposed AI topic research is twofold: 1) to advance AI technology in eye health; 2) to training graduate students interested in AI technology. One underrepresented American-born-Vietnamese student and two African/black students from underdeveloped countries will be involved in this project. It is known that diabet...

Dr Michael Chiang Chronicles the NEI’s Research Into AI, Telemedicine in Ophthalmology

Advances in imaging and data science are changing the nature of retina practice, and retina specialists need to stay on top of these, said Michael F. Chiang, MD, director of the National Eye Institute (NEI), who also discussed some of the current research the agency is conducting into artificial intelligence (AI) and telemedicine. ( Read Full Article )

The Efficacy of Anti-VEGF Therapy for Putative or Visible CNV in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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Purpose . To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with putative or visible choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods . In a retrospective cohort study, 16 eyes of 15 treatment-naïve CSCR patients were included and divided into two groups: a putative CNV group with nonhomogenous hyperreflectivity in the slab of choriocapillaris and a visible CNV group with obvious tangled vascular network in the slab of choriocapillaris in OCTA. Patients were recorded with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The parameters, evaluated by OCTA, included central macular thickness (CMT), the height of subretinal fluid (SRF), the number of hyperreflective foci (HRF), and the area of putative or visible CNV. Results . Compared with the baseline, visual acuity was improved significantly at the last follow-up, an...

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