General Technology

Rapid Cellular-Resolution Skin Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography Using All-Glass Multifocal Metasurfaces

, , , , , , ,

Cellular-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool offering noninvasive histology-like imaging. However, like other optical microscopy tools, a high numerical aperture (N.A.) lens is required to generate a tight focus, generating a narrow depth of field, which necessitates dynamic focusing and limiting the imaging speed. To overcome this limitation, we developed a metasurface platform that generates multiple axial foci, which multiplies the volumetric OCT imaging speed by offering several focal planes. This platform offers accurate and flexible control over the number, positions, and intensities of axial foci generated. All-glass metasurface optical elements 8 mm in diameter are fabricated from fused-silica wafers and implemented into our scanning OCT system. With a constant lateral resolution of 1.1 μm over all depths, the multifocal OCT triples the volumetric acquisition speed for dermatological imaging, while still clearly revealing features of stratum co...

A novel vessel segmentation algorithm for pathological en-face images based on matched filter

, , , ,

The vascular information in fundus images can provide important basis for detection and prediction of retina-related diseases. However, the presence of lesions such as Coroidal Neovascularization (CNV) can seriously interfere with normal vascular areas in optical coherence tomography (OCT) fundus images. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for detecting blood vessels in pathological OCT fundus images. First of all, an automatic localization and filling method is used in preprocessing step to reduce pathological interference. Afterwards, in terms of vessel extraction, a pore ablation method based on capillary bundle model is applied. The ablation method processes the image after matched filter feature extraction, which can eliminate the interference caused by diseased blood vessels to a great extent. At the end of the proposed method, morphological operations are used to obtain the main vascular features. Experimental results on the dataset show that the proposed method achie...

MedMNIST v2 – A large-scale lightweight benchmark for 2D and 3D biomedical image classification

, , , , , , ,

MedMNIST v2 - A large-scale lightweight benchmark for 2D and 3D biomedical image classification We introduce MedMNIST v2, a large-scale MNIST-like dataset collection of standardized biomedical images, including 12 datasets for 2D and 6 datasets for 3D. All images are pre-processed into a small size of 28 × 28 (2D) or 28 × 28 × 28 (3D) with the corresponding classification labels so that no background knowledge is required for users. Covering primary data modalities in biomedical images, MedMNIST v2 is designed to perform classification on lightweight 2D and 3D images with various dataset scales (from 100 to 100,000) and diverse tasks (binary/multi-class, ordinal regression, and multi-label). The resulting dataset, consisting of 708,069 2D images and 9,998 3D images in total, could support numerous research/educational purposes in biomedical image analysis, computer vision, and machine learning. We benchmark several baseline methods on MedMNIST v2, including 2D/3D neural networks and open-source/commercial AutoML tools. The data and code are publicly available at https://medm...

Design of a Broadband Fiber Optic Mode Coupler for Multimode Optical Coherence Tomography

In this paper, we propose an optical fiber-based broadband mode coupler for multimode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the O-band (1.26-1.36 μm). The proposed device uses a tapered few-mode fiber (FMF) to lower the effective mode index of the selected higher-order mode, which can be phase matched to the fundamental mode of the single-mode fiber (SMF). The tapered FMF and the SMF are side polished to reduce the core-to-core separation to achieve efficient mode coupling. Key design parameters such as the tapering ratio of the FMF, FMF core to SMF core separation, coupler length, and coupling ratio in the O-band are studied thoroughly. Higher-order modes of the FMF will be effectively coupled from the fundamental mode of SMF in the sample arm of the multimode OCT system. The reflected signals of the higher-order modes from the sample will be separated into several single-mode signals using the same fiber device before interfering with the reference light, which was not possible ...

Overview of Optical Biosensors for Early Cancer Detection: Fundamentals, Applications and Future Perspectives

, ,

Conventional cancer detection and treatment methodologies are based on surgical, chemical and radiational processes, which are expensive, time consuming and painful. Therefore, great interest has been directed toward developing sensitive, inexpensive and rapid techniques for early cancer detection. Optical biosensors have advantages in terms of high sensitivity and being label free with a compact size. In this review paper, the state of the art of optical biosensors for early cancer detection is presented in detail. The basic idea, sensitivity analysis, advantages and limitations of the optical biosensors are discussed. This includes optical biosensors based on plasmonic waveguides, photonic crystal fibers, slot waveguides and metamaterials. Further, the traditional optical methods, such as the colorimetric technique, optical coherence tomography, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and reflectometric interference spectroscopy, are addressed.

Bond-Selective Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

, , , , , ,

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a label-free, non-invasive 3D imaging tool widely used in both biological research and clinical diagnosis. Current OCT modalities can only visualize specimen tomography without chemical information. Here, we report a bondselective full-field OCT (BS-FF-OCT), in which a pulsed mid-infrared laser is used to modulate the OCT signal through the photothermal effect, achieving label-free bond-selective 3D sectioned imaging of highly scattering samples. We first demonstrate BS-FF-OCT imaging of 1 μm PMMA beads embedded in agarose gel. Next, we then show 3D hyperspectral imaging of polypropylene fiber mattress from a standard surgical mask. We then demonstrate BS-FFOCT imaging on biological samples, including cancer cell spheroids and C. elegans. Using an alternative pulse timing configuration, we finally demonstrate the capability of BS-FF-OCT on a bulky and highly scattering 150 μm thick mouse brain slice.

Using beam-offset optical coherence tomography to reconstruct backscattered photon profiles in scattering media


Raster scanning imaging technologies capture least scattered photons (LSPs) and reject multiple scattered photons (MSPs) in backscattered photons to image the underlying structures of a scattering medium. However, MSPs can still squeeze into the images, resulting in limited imaging depth, degraded contrast, and significantly reduced lateral resolution. Great efforts have been made to understand how MSPs affect imaging performance through modeling, but the techniques for visualizing the backscattered photon profile (BSPP) in scattering media during imaging are unavailable. Here, a method of reconstructing BSPP is demonstrated using beam-offset optical coherence tomography (OCT), in which OCT images are acquired at offset positions from the illumination beam. The separation of LSPs and MSPs based on the BSPP enables quantification of imaging depth, contrast, and lateral resolution, as well as access to the depth-resolved modulated transfer function (MTF). This approach presents grea...

Gauss Gradient Algorithm for Edge Detection in Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Images


Medical imaging modalities play a vital role in the healthcare sector for disease diagnosis and prediction. Optical Coherence Tomography uses near-infrared rays for generating cross-sectional images of the retina. Edge detection is a traditionalROI extractionalgorithm thatextracts the boundary of objects in an image. This research work focuses on the gauss gradient-based edge detection model for boundary detection in Optical Coherence Tomography images of the retina. The separable feature of a 2D Gaussian kernel is used, and a 1D kernel for the x and y directions is created. The Gaussian kernel utilized in this research work is the convolution result of Gaussian function and first-order derivative of Gaussian function. For performance validation, the Berkeley segmentation data set was utilized, when compared to traditional edge detection models, and better results were obtained for the gauss gradient algorithm.

High-resolution optical coherence tomography using gapped spectrum and real-valued iterative adaptive approach

, , ,

High-resolution optical coherence tomography using gapped spectrum and real-valued iterative adaptive approach Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging technique that is capable of imaging cross-sectional structures with micrometer resolution. After combining with phase-sensitive detection, it can sense small changes in the physical quantities inside an object. In OCT, axial resolution is generally improved by expanding the bandwidth of the light source. However, when the bandwidth is expanded discontinuously, the wavelength gap induces abnormal sidelobes when estimating OCT signals in the depth domain. This problem can lead to poor axial resolution. Herein, we present a method based on a real-valued iterative adaptive approach (RIAA) to achieve a high axial resolution under a discontinuous bandwidth condition. The method uses a weighted matrix to suppress the abnormal sidelobes caused by the wavelength gap and, therefore, can realize high-resolution measurements. A single-reflector OCT spectrum was first measured for validation, and its amplitude in the depth domain was es...

On the inverse problem in optical coherence tomography

, ,

We examine the inverse problem of retrieving sample refractive index information in the context of optical coherence tomography. Using two separate approaches, we discuss the limitations of the inverse problem which lead to it being ill-posed, primarily as a consequence of the limited viewing angles available in the reflection geometry. This is first considered from the theoretical point of view of diffraction tomography under a weak scattering approximation. We then investigate the full non-linear inverse problem using a variational approach. This presents another illustration of the non-uniqueness of the solution, and shows that even the non-linear (strongly scattering) scenario suffers a similar fate as the linear problem, with the observable spatial Fourier components of the sample occupying a limited support. Through examples we demonstrate how the solutions to the inverse problem compare when using the variational and diffraction-tomography approaches.

Local polarization properties extraction using single incident state, single-mode-fiber-based spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

, , , , , , , ,

Local polarization properties extraction using single incident state, single-mode-fiber-based spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography We showed the local polarization properties extraction method for the single incident state, all-single-mode-fiber-based spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD-PS-OCT) system that uses the single linear-in-wavenumber spectral camera. Polarization controllers are used in the single-mode-fiber-based SD-PS-OCT system to provide a compact structure with polarization state stability. The local polarization properties of the birefringent sample are extracted from the cumulative polarization properties iteratively. The reconstructed polarization images demonstrate the local polarization properties extraction ability of the system.

GPU-accelerated image registration algorithm in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography

, , , , , , ,

Limited to the power of the light source in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography (OCT), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed images is usually lower than OCT used in other fields. As a result, improvement of the SNR is required. The traditional method is averaging several images at the same lateral position. However, the image registration average costs too much time, which limits its real-time imaging application. In response to this problem, graphics processing unit (GPU)-side kernel functions are applied to accelerate the reconstruction of the OCT signals in this paper. The SNR of the images reconstructed from different numbers of A-scans and B-scans were compared. The results demonstrated that: 1) There is no need to realize the axial registration with every A-scan. The number of the A-scans used to realize axial registration is suitable to set as ∼25, when the A-line speed was set as ∼12.5kHz. 2) On the basis of ensuring the quality of the reconstructed image...

Adaptive dynamic analysis-based optical coherence tomography angiography for blood vessel projection artifact suppression

, ,

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for blood vessel 3-D structure imaging suffers from blood vessel projection artifacts/tail artifacts when using a long decorrelation time (e.g., repeat B-scan acquisition in regular OCTA) or loss of micro vessel signal when using a short decorrelation time. In this work, we developed an adaptive first-order field autocorrelation function (g1) analysis-based technique to suppress the projection artifacts under macro vessels while enhancing the dynamic signal of micro vessels. The proposed method is based on the differences of the decorrelation rate and the phase variations of g1 between the vessel voxels and the artifacts regions. A short or long decorrelation time was applied to obtain the dynamic index of the projection artifacts region or the blood vessel region, respectively. Compared to the slab subtraction-based post-image processing-based techniques, the proposed approach addresses this problem on a physical basis and shows the a...

Large group delay and low loss optical delay line based on chirped waveguide Bragg gratings

, , , , ,

Large group delay and low loss optical delay line based on chirped waveguide Bragg gratings On-chip optical delay lines (ODLs) based on chirped waveguide Bragg gratings (CWBG) have attracted much attention in recent years. Although CWBGs are well developed, the CWBG which have large group delay (GD), large delay-bandwidth product and low loss while is circulator-free have little been investigated so far. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate such a CWBG-based ODL. This device is fabricated on a low-loss 800-nm-height silicon nitride platform, combining 20.11-cm long index-chirped multi-mode spiral waveguide antisymmetric Bragg gratings with a directional coupler. The bandwidth of this circulator-free ODL is 23 nm. The total GD is 2864 ps and the delay-bandwidth product is 65.87 ns·nm, which both are the largest values achieved by on-chip CWBG reported to our knowledge. Its loss is 1.57 dB/ns and the total insertion loss of the device is 6 dB at the central wavelength near 1550 nm. This integrated CWBG can be explored in practical applications including ...

Retina and choroid without secrets. STOC tomography enables unprecedented views of eye structure

Retina and choroid without secrets. STOC tomography enables unprecedented views of eye structure Modern imaging of eye tissues would not be possible without the use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) scans. This method, one of the world's most popular and accurate diagnostic techniques, has enabled us to understand more fully the mechanisms of many diseases and to select therapies more effectively. However, OCT is not a perfect technique. Coherent noise and/or limited axial range have prevented high-resolution imaging, as well as precluding full penetration of all layers of the retina and choroid. Researchers at the International Centre for Translational Eye Research (ICTER) found a way around these limitations and developed Spatio-Temporal Optical Coherence Tomography (STOC-T). The latest research by the team led by Prof. Maciej Wojtkowski confirms that this method makes it possible now to view the retina and choroid with high resolution at distinct depths in the frontal section. No one in the world had succeeded previously. The eye only sometimes reveals everything. I...


Organizations in the News

OCT Companies in the News

Picture Gallery