Pulmonology

Leadoptik Funding

Leadoptik is developing integrated optic technology for the pulmonology market and has raised a total of $1.8M in funding over 5 rounds. Their latest funding was raised on Jun 7, 2022 from a Non-equity Assistance round.

Measure Airway Compliance by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

Measure Airway Compliance by Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)is a novel, non-invasive, high resolution special optical imaging techniques. In airway, Measure airway area and airway wall thickness is the most usage of Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography (EB-OCT). Recently, the new protocol of EB-OCT is used to measure airway compliance, We will establish a new methodology of EB-OCT for measuring airway compliance, which will provide a new means to study respiratory diseases.

Deep Learning-Based Segmentation of Airway Morphology from Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

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Background: Manual measurement of endobronchial optical coherence tomography (EB-OCT) images means a heavy workload in the clinical practice, which can also introduce bias if the subjective opinions of doctors are involved. Objective: We aim to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based EB-OCT image analysis algorithm to automatically identify and measure EB-OCT parameters of airway morphology. Methods: The ResUNet, MultiResUNet, and Siamese network were used for analyzing airway inner area (Ai), airway wall area (Aw), airway wall area percentage (Aw%), and airway bifurcate segmentation obtained from EB-OCT imaging, respectively. The accuracy of the automatic segmentations was verified by comparing with manual measurements. Results: Thirty-three patients who were diagnosed with asthma (n = 13), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n = 13), and normal airway (n = 7) were enrolled. EB-OCT was performed in RB9 segment (lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe), and...

Evaluation of Acute Effects of Pulmonary Involvement and Hypoxia on Retina and Choroid in Coronavirus Disease 2019: An Optic Coherence Tomography Study

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Purpose We investigated the acute subclinical choroidal and retinal changes caused by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with and without pulmonary involvement, using spectral domain optic coherence tomography. Methods This prospective case–control study included COVID-19 patients: 50 with pulmonary involvement and 118 with non-pulmonary involvement. All patients were examined 1 month after recovering from COVID-19. The changes were followed using optic coherence tomography parameters such as choroidal and macular thickness and retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex measurements. Results All choroidal thicknesses in the pulmonary involvement group were lower than in the non-pulmonary involvement group and the subfoveal choroidal thickness differed significantly (p=0.036). Although there were no significant differences between the central and average macular thicknesses in the two groups, they were slightly thicker in the pulmonary involvement group (p=...

Optical coherence tomography of the pulmonary arteries in children with congenital heart diseases: A systematic review

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Importance Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution intravascular imaging tool and has shown promise for providing real-time quantitative and qualitative descriptions of pulmonary vascular structures in vivo in adult pulmonary hypertension (PH), while not popular in pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all the available evidence on the use of OCT for imaging pulmonary vascular remodeling in pediatric patients. Methods We conducted the systematic literature resources (Cochran Library database, Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge) from January 2010 to December 2021 and the search terms were “PH”, “child”, “children”, “pediatric”, “OCT”, “CHD”, “pulmonary vessels”, “pulmonary artery wall”. Studies in which OCT was used to image the pulmonary vessels in pediatric patients with CHD were considered for inclusion. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. These five ...

Advances in bronchoscopic optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy in pulmonary diseases

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Purpose of review: Imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary diseases but generally lack detailed information on a microscopic level. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) are imaging techniques which provide microscopic images in vivo during bronchoscopy. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advancements in the use of bronchoscopic OCT- and CLE-imaging in pulmonary medicine. Recent findings: In recent years, OCT- and CLE-imaging have been evaluated in a wide variety of pulmonary diseases and demonstrated to be complementary to bronchoscopy for real-time, near-histological imaging. Several pulmonary compartments were visualized and characteristic patterns for disease were identified. In thoracic malignancy, OCT- and CLE-imaging can provide characterization of malignant tissue with the ability to identify the optimal sampling area. In interstitial lung disease (ILD), fibrotic patterns were detected b...

Aquyre Biosciences Reaches Major Procedure Milestone During Lung Awareness Month

Aquyre Biosciences recognizes Lung Cancer Awareness Month by reaching a milestone of over 400 lung biopsy procedures completed using the CelTivity™ microscopic system. CelTivity provides an easy-to-read image, like a PET scan for cells, making cancer cells glow. Physicians found that by using CelTivity they had a significantly higher rate of cancer detection (96%), compared to traditional methods (57%). By using CelTivity, physicians can be more confident in their findings and quickly provide diagnosis guidance to patients. CelTivity is the only microscopic system on the market to provide physicians with a non-destructive Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE) of a biopsy for both fine needle aspiration (FNA) and tissue. Powered by proprietary technologies, including Dynamic Cell Imaging™ (DCI), CelTivity analyzes the entire biopsy’s intracellular and metabolic activity. This activity is then presented in a heatmap, making results easy to interpret. The two-minu...

Ocular biometry in dense cataracts: Comparison of partial-coherence interferometry, swept-source optical coherence tomography and immersion ultrasound

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Purpose: To assess the axial length (AL) measurement failure rate using partial-coherence interferometry (PCI) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in dense cataracts. As a secondary outcome, the SS-OCT biometry was compared to immersion ultrasound. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional and comparative study. Seventy eyes from 70 patients with dense cataracts were enrolled in this study. Dense cataract was defined according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) scores equal to or more than NO4, NC4, C4, and P3. The failure rate of AL measurement was evaluated using PCI and SS-OCT. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and AL measurements obtained by SS-OCT were compared with IUS. Results: AL measurement failure rate with PCI was 68.57% and 21.43% with SS-OCT ( P = 0.007). AL measurement was achieved in 69.23% of NO4, 66.6% of P3, and 15.3% of mixed cataracts using PCI, while SS-OCT was achieved in 100% of NO4, NO5, P3, and...

Quantification and visualization of metastatic lung tumors in mice

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Histopathological examination is important for the diagnosis of various diseases. Conventional histopathology provides a two-dimensional view of the tissues, and requires the tissue to be extracted, fixed, and processed using histotechnology techniques. However, there is an increasing need for three-dimensional (3D) images of structures in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to develop reliable, objective tools for visualizing and quantifying metastatic tumors in mouse lung using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Melanoma cells were intravenously injected into the tail vein of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice. The mice were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks after injection. Lungs were fixed and examined by micro-CT, OCT, FE-SEM, and histopathological observation. Micro-CT clearly distinguished between tumor and normal cells in surface and deep lesions, thereby allowing 3D quantificatio...

Bronchoscopic Journey of in vivo Real-Time Microscopic Imaging in ILD: A Case Series

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Background: Patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) frequently present with nondiagnostic high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results, resulting in the need for invasive surgical or cryo-lung biopsy that is associated with significant morbidity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are high-resolution laser and light-based techniques that provide real-time imaging of the alveolar compartment during bronchoscopy with a different depth and field of view. Objectives: The aim of the study was to correlate OCT and CLE imaging to HRCT imaging in ILD. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 20 ILD patients who underwent alveolar CLE and OCT imaging during a standard bronchoscopy with BAL, followed by a lung biopsy when indicated. CLE and OCT imaging were compared to four main HRCT patterns and histology. The final diagnosis was based on the multidisciplinary discussion diagnosis. Results: Bronchoscopic CLE an...

Optical clearing and testing of lung tissue using inhalation aerosols: prospects for monitoring the action of viral infections

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Optical clearing of the lung tissue aims to make it more transparent to light by minimizing light scattering, thus allowing reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure of the tissue with a much better resolution. This is of great importance for monitoring of viral infection impact on the alveolar structure of the tissue and oxygen transport. Optical clearing agents (OCAs) can provide not only lesser light scattering of tissue components but also may influence the molecular transport function of the alveolar membrane. Air-filled lungs present significant challenges for optical imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, because of the large refractive-index mismatch between alveoli walls and the enclosed air-filled region. During OCT imaging, the light is strongly backscattered at each air–tissue interface, such that image reconstruction is typically limited to a single alveolus. At the same time, the f...

Intravital imaging of mucus transport in asthmatic mice using microscopic optical coherence tomography

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Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases. Mucus overproduction is consistently linked to asthma morbidity and mortality. Despite the knowledge of the importance of mucus, little data exists on how mucus is transported in asthma and the immediate effects of therapeutic intervention. We therefore used microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT) to study spontaneous and induced mucus transport in an interleukin-13 (IL-13) induced asthma mouse model and examined the effects of isotonic (0.9% NaCl) and hypertonic saline (7% NaCl) which are used to induce mucus transport in cystic fibrosis. Without intervention, no bulk mucus transport was observed by mOCT and no intraluminal mucus was detectable in the intrapulmonary airways by histology. Administration of ATP-g-S induced mucus secretion into the airway lumen, but did not result in bulk mucus transport in the trachea. Intraluminal secreted immobile mucus could be mobilized by administration of isotonic or hypertonic saline b...

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Receives NIH Grant for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $821,057 for Predicting the Need for Surgery in Pediatric Subglottic Stenosis using Airway Elastography Derived from Endoscopic OCT and Intraluminal Pressure Measurement. The principal investigator is Amy Oldenburg. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is one of the most common life-threatening airway disorders in infants and children. Current treatment methods are based on airway endoscopy, which provides only qualitative information. Surgical treatment failures for the most severe grades of SGS range toward 50%, often due to post-operative airway collapse in new, unpredicted locations. Treatment planning could be improved if evidence-based, quantitative, physiologic or anatomic metrics were available. To address this need, we propose to advance anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) for high- resolution, high-speed imaging of the airway. Endoscopic aOCT and intraluminal pr...

Massachusetts General Hosptial Receives NIH Grant for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography

Massachusetts General Hosptial Received a 2022 NIH Grant for $189,000 for Assessing Airway Smooth Muscle Tone in Asthma with Endobronchial Optical Coherence Tomography. The principal investigator is David Adams. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Asthma affects over 300 million individuals with up to an estimated 10% suffering from “treatment- resistant” asthma, for whom alternative strategies are needed. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) undergoes significant changes in asthma that increase bronchoconstriction and impair lung function. Treatments and therapies that target ASM specifically may therefore offer an alternative approach to controlling asthma, but progress is impeded by the difficulty in assessing ASM in a clinical setting. Recently we have demonstrated an imaging platform based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) capable of assessing ASM distributions in vivo by exploiting the form birefringence of smooth muscle. In this proposal w...

OCT Evaluates the Effects of CTEPH Treated by Scoring Balloon

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disease of obstructive pulmonary artery remodelling as a consequence of major vessel thromboembolism. The diagnosis of CTEPH is based on findings obtained after at least 3 months of effective anticoagulation in order to discriminate this condition from subacute PE. These findings are mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg with pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg, mismatched perfusion defects on lung scan and specific diagnostic signs for CTEPH seen by multidetector CT angiography, MR imaging or conventional pulmonary cineangiography, such as ring-like stenoses, webs/slits and chronic total occlusions (pouch lesions or tapered lesions). Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is a type of effective treatment for CTEPH. Plain balloon is usually used in BPA surgery,however,the efficacy and safety of NSE scoring balloon in BPA is not clear. Optical coherence tomography (OCT)as a good assessment methods has been reporte...

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