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Bond-Selective Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography

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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a label-free, non-invasive 3D imaging tool widely used in both biological research and clinical diagnosis. Current OCT modalities can only visualize specimen tomography without chemical information. Here, we report a bondselective full-field OCT (BS-FF-OCT), in which a pulsed mid-infrared laser is used to modulate the OCT signal through the photothermal effect, achieving label-free bond-selective 3D sectioned imaging of highly scattering samples. We first demonstrate BS-FF-OCT imaging of 1 μm PMMA beads embedded in agarose gel. Next, we then show 3D hyperspectral imaging of polypropylene fiber mattress from a standard surgical mask. We then demonstrate BS-FFOCT imaging on biological samples, including cancer cell spheroids and C. elegans. Using an alternative pulse timing configuration, we finally demonstrate the capability of BS-FF-OCT on a bulky and highly scattering 150 μm thick mouse brain slice.

Intratissue activity imaging of an alveolar organoid with three-dimensional dynamic optical coherence tomography

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An organoid is a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture emulating human organs. We applied 3D dynamic optical coherence tomography (DOCT) to visualize the intratissue and intracellular activities of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived alveolar organoids in normal and fibrosis models. 3D DOCT data were acquired with a 840-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography with axial and lateral resolutions of 3.8 {\mu}m (in tissue) and 4.9 {\mu}m, respectively. The DOCT images were obtained by the logarithmic-intensity-variance (LIV) method, which is sensitive to the signal fluctuation magnitude. The LIV images revealed cystic structures surrounded by high-LIV borders and mesh-like structures with low LIV. The former may be alveoli with a highly dynamics epithelium, while the latter may be fibroblasts. The LIV images also demonstrated the abnormal repair of the alveolar epithelium.

Dynamic Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography module adapted to commercial microscopes for longitudinal in vitro cell culture study

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Dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography (D-FFOCT) has recently emerged as a label-free imaging tool, capable of resolving cell types and organelles within 3D live samples, whilst monitoring their activity at tens of milliseconds resolution. Here, a D-FFOCT module design is presented which can be coupled to a commercial microscope with a stage top incubator, allowing non-invasive label-free longitudinal imaging over periods of minutes to weeks on the same sample. Long term volumetric imaging on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids is demonstrated, highlighting tissue and cell organisation as well as cell shape, motility and division. Imaging on retinal explants highlights single 3D cone and rod structures. An optimal workflow for data acquisition, postprocessing and saving is demonstrated, resulting in a time gain factor of 10 compared to prior state of the art. Finally, a method to increase D-FFOCT signal-to-noise ratio is demonstrated, allowing rapi...

Prevalence and patterns of in-stent neoatherosclerosis in lower extremity artery disease

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Background: In-stent restenosis (ISR) is responsible for a rapid decline of vessel patency after stenting. To date, little is known about the role of in-stent neoatherosclerosis (NA) in stent failure in lower limb arteries. Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and patterns of in-stent NA in patients with symptomatic ISR of the lower extremity vasculature using intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods: Patients underwent endovascular revascularisation for ISR including angiography and OCT imaging. NA was defined as the presence of at least 1 fibroatheroma or fibrocalcific plaque within the neointima of a stented segment. Results: Using OCT, we imaged 24 symptomatic patients with lower extremity artery disease (LEAD), with a total of 30 ISR in the lower limbs, prior to their scheduled endovascular interventions. NA formation was observed in 23 (76.7%) lesions, while all stents with an implant duration >5 years (n=8) showed signs of NA...

Three-dimensional morphological revealing of human placental villi with common obstetric complications via optical coherence tomography

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Placental villi play a vital role in human fetal development, acting as the bridge of material exchange between the maternal and fetal. The abnormal morphology of placental villi is closely related to placental circulation disorder and pregnancy complications. Revealing placental villi three-dimensional (3D) morphology of common obstetric complications and healthy pregnancies provides a new perspective for studying the role of the placenta and its villi in the development of pregnancy diseases. In this study, we established a noninvasive, high-resolution 3D imaging platform via optical coherence tomography to reveal placental villi 3D morphological information of diseased and normal placentae. For the first time, 3D morphologies of placental villous tree structures in common obstetric complications were quantitatively revealed and corresponding 3D information could visualize the morphological characteristics of the placental villous tree from a more intuitive perspective, providing ...

Non-invasive investigation of the morphology and optical properties of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea with optical coherence tomography

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The jellyfish Cassiopea largely cover their organic carbon demand via photosynthates produced by their microalgal endosymbionts, but how holobiont morphology and optical properties affect the light microclimate and symbiont photosynthesis in Cassiopea remain unexplored. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study the morphology of live Cassiopea medusae at high spatial resolution. We include detailed 3D reconstructions of external micromorphology, and show the spatial distribution of endosymbionts clustered in amoebocytes and white granules in the bell tissue. Furthermore, we use OCT data to extract inherent optical properties from light scattering white granules in Cassiopea and show that white granules enhance local light availability for symbionts in close proximity. Individual granules had a scattering coefficient of μs = 200-300 cm-1, and a scattering anisotropy factor of g = 0.7, while large tissue regions filled with white granules had a lower μs = 40-100 cm-1, a...

Hybrid Cyanine/Methotrexate Nanoparticles for Synergistic PDT/Chemotherapy of Breast Cancer

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Typically, nanomedicine was prepared using a nanocarrier to load cargo for specific purposes. In this work, a carrier-free nanosystem for imaging and photodynamic (PDT)/chemo combination therapy was developed using simple self-assembly of a dye and a chemotherapeutic agent. The resulting nanoparticles (I2-IR783/MTX@NPs) exhibited a spherical morphology with a size of 240.6 ± 2.5 nm. I2-IR783/MTX@NPs had substantial internalization in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and showed a synergistic anticancer effect after NIR light irradiation. Additionally, the 3D tumor model exhibits the same phototoxicity of nanoparticles as a 2D cell culture. The PDT efficiency of the nanosystem in the physiological environment was confirmed by the detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species as well as the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay following NIR light exposure. In addition, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used as an alternative tool to monitor the response after treatment. There...

Optical force estimation for interactions between tool and soft tissues

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Robotic assistance in minimally invasive surgery offers numerous advantages for both patient and surgeon. However, the lack of force feedback in robotic surgery is a major limitation, and accurately estimating tool-tissue interaction forces remains a challenge. Image-based force estimation offers a promising solution without the need to integrate sensors into surgical tools. In this indirect approach, interaction forces are derived from the observed deformation, with learning-based methods improving accuracy and real-time capability. However, the relationship between deformation and force is determined by the stiffness of the tissue. Consequently, both deformation and local tissue properties must be observed for an approach applicable to heterogeneous tissue. In this work, we use optical coherence tomography, which can combine the detection of tissue deformation with shear wave elastography in a single modality. We present a multi-input deep learning network for processing of local ...

Classification of neck tissues in OCT images by using convolutional neural network

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Identification and classification of surrounding neck tissues are very important in thyroid surgery. The advantages of optical coherence tomography (OCT), high resolution, non-invasion, and non-destruction make it have great potential in identifying different neck tissues during thyroidectomy. We studied the automatic classification for neck tissues in OCT images based on convolutional neural network in this paper. OCT images of five kinds of neck tissues were collected firstly by our home-made swept source (SS-OCT) system, and a dataset was built for neural network training. Three image classification neural networks: LeNet, VGGNet, and ResNet, were used to train and test the dataset. The impact of transfer learning on the classification of neck tissue OCT images was also studied. Through the comparison of accuracy, it was found that ResNet has the best classification accuracy among the three networks. In addition, transfer learning did not significantly improve the accuracy, but i...

Non-invasive estimation of coral polyp volume and surface area using optical coherence tomography

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The surface area (SA) and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of reef-building corals are central to their physiology. A challenge for the estimation of coral SA has been to meet the required spatial resolution as well as the capability to preserve the soft tissue in its native state during measurements. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to quantify the 3D microstructure of coral tissues and skeletons with nearly micron-scale resolution. Here, we develop a non-invasive method to quantify surface area and volume of single coral polyps. A coral fragment with several coral polyps as well as calibration targets of known areal extent are scanned with an OCT system. This produces a 3D matrix of optical backscatter that is analyzed with computer algorithms to detect refractive index mismatches between physical boundaries between the coral and the immersed water. The algorithms make use of a normalization of the depth dependent scatter intensity and signal attenuation as well a...

Impact of Fe2+ and Shear Stress on the Development and Mesoscopic Structure of Biofilms—A Bacillus subtilis Case Study

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Bivalent cations are known to affect the structural and mechanical properties of biofilms. In order to reveal the impact of Fe 2+ ions within the cultivation medium on biofilm development, structure and stability, Bacillus subtilis biofilms were cultivated in mini-fluidic flow cells. Two different Fe 2+ inflow concentrations (0.25 and 2.5 mg/L, respectively) and wall shear stress levels (0.05 and 0.27 Pa, respectively) were tested. Mesoscopic biofilm structure was determined daily in situ and non-invasively by means of optical coherence tomography. A set of ten structural parameters was used to quantify biofilm structure, its development and change. The study focused on characterizing biofilm structure and development at the mesoscale (mm-range). Therefore, biofilm replicates ( n = 10) were cultivated and analyzed. Three hypotheses were defined in order to estimate the effect of Fe 2+ inflow concentration and/or wall shear stress on biofilm development and structure, respectively. I...

Latent Fingerprint Imaging by Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact and non-invasive optical method for evaluating semitransparent and scattering objects. Its unique features, such as non-destructive 3D measurements of tested objects with a fast scanning rate, make this technique interesting for latent fingerprint reading, which is the subject of this paper. So far, OCT has not found widespread use for reading fingerprints directly from surfaces due to its insufficient axial resolution. This problem has been overcome by applying spectroscopic analysis to the OCT measurements, which is based on retrieving the spatially resolved spectral characteristics of the recorded backscattered light directly from the OCT measurement data. The spectroscopic analysis is very sensitive to thin film thickness variations, improving the readability of the latent fingerprints by OCT, which is reported here as well. This study includes a description of spectroscopic analysis in combination with OCT and indicates the be...

On-field optical imaging data for the pre-identification and estimation of leaf deformities

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Visually nonidentifiable pathological symptoms at an early stage are a major limitation in agricultural plantations. Thickness reduction in palisade parenchyma (PP) and spongy parenchyma (SP) layers is one of the most common symptoms that occur at the early stage of leaf diseases, particularly in apple and persimmon. To visualize variations in PP and SP thickness, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based imaging and analyzed the acquired datasets to determine the threshold parameters for pre-identifying and estimating persimmon and apple leaf abnormalities using an intensity-based depth profiling algorithm. The algorithm identified morphological differences between healthy, apparently-healthy, and infected leaves by applying a threshold in depth profiling to classify them. The qualitative and quantitative results revealed changes and abnormalities in leaf morphology in addition to disease incubation in both apple and persimmon leaves. These can be used to examine how initial...

Robust Identification and Segmentation of the Outer Skin Layers in Volumetric Fingerprint Data

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Despite the long history of fingerprint biometrics and its use to authenticate individuals, there are still some unsolved challenges with fingerprint acquisition and presentation attack detection (PAD). Currently available commercial fingerprint capture devices struggle with non-ideal skin conditions, including soft skin in infants. They are also susceptible to presentation attacks, which limits their applicability in unsupervised scenarios such as border control. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be a promising solution to these problems. In this work, we propose a digital signal processing chain for segmenting two complementary fingerprints from the same OCT fingertip scan: One fingerprint is captured as usual from the epidermis (“outer fingerprint”), whereas the other is taken from inside the skin, at the junction between the epidermis and the underlying dermis (“inner fingerprint”). The resulting 3D fingerprints are then converted to a conventional...

Optical signal intensity incorporated rice seed cultivar classification using optical coherence tomography

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Here, the optical signal intensity of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) was incorporated to assess the images of different rice seeds for precise cultivar classification. Such classification is essential from various agricultural viewpoints but remains challenging because rice seeds have a similar visual appearance. Thus, studies on rice seed cultivar classification play a key role in achieving a successful rice yield. To investigate the feasibility of the proposed approach, two-dimensional OCT images were acquired from two types of rice seed cultivars (Chucheong and Hopyeong), which were then subjected to an optical signal intensity assessment. Based on the depth-dependent optical scan profile results, the averaged and normalized back-scattered light intensity curves revealed a distinct difference between each cultivar, which aided the precise classification of the cultivars. Therefore, the developed optical signal-sensing approach can be extensively applicable to ...

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