Michael Kuhl

Non-invasive investigation of the morphology and optical properties of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea with optical coherence tomography

, , , , ,

The jellyfish Cassiopea largely cover their organic carbon demand via photosynthates produced by their microalgal endosymbionts, but how holobiont morphology and optical properties affect the light microclimate and symbiont photosynthesis in Cassiopea remain unexplored. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study the morphology of live Cassiopea medusae at high spatial resolution. We include detailed 3D reconstructions of external micromorphology, and show the spatial distribution of endosymbionts clustered in amoebocytes and white granules in the bell tissue. Furthermore, we use OCT data to extract inherent optical properties from light scattering white granules in Cassiopea and show that white granules enhance local light availability for symbionts in close proximity. Individual granules had a scattering coefficient of μs = 200-300 cm-1, and a scattering anisotropy factor of g = 0.7, while large tissue regions filled with white granules had a lower μs = 40-100 cm-1, a...

Non-invasive estimation of coral polyp volume and surface area using optical coherence tomography

, , ,

The surface area (SA) and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of reef-building corals are central to their physiology. A challenge for the estimation of coral SA has been to meet the required spatial resolution as well as the capability to preserve the soft tissue in its native state during measurements. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to quantify the 3D microstructure of coral tissues and skeletons with nearly micron-scale resolution. Here, we develop a non-invasive method to quantify surface area and volume of single coral polyps. A coral fragment with several coral polyps as well as calibration targets of known areal extent are scanned with an OCT system. This produces a 3D matrix of optical backscatter that is analyzed with computer algorithms to detect refractive index mismatches between physical boundaries between the coral and the immersed water. The algorithms make use of a normalization of the depth dependent scatter intensity and signal attenuation as well a...

Biophysical properties at patch scale shape the metabolism of biofilm landscapes

, , , , ,

Phototrophic biofilms form complex spatial patterns in streams and rivers, yet, how community patchiness, structure and function are coupled and contribute to larger-scale metabolism remains unkown. Here, we combined optical coherence tomography with automated O 2 microprofiling and amplicon sequencing in a flume experiment to show how distinct community patches interact with the hydraulic environment and how this affects the internal distribution of oxygen. We used numerical simulations to derive rates of community photosynthetic activity and respiration at the patch scale and use the obtained parameter to upscale from individual patches to the larger biofilm landscape. Our biofilm landscape approach revealed evidence of parallels in the structure-function coupling between phototrophic biofilms and their streambed habitat. ( Read Full Article )

Microscale light management and inherent optical properties of intact corals studied with optical coherence tomography

, , , , ,

Coral reefs are highly productive photosynthetic systems and coral optics studies suggest that such high efficiency is due to optimized light scattering by coral tissue and skeleton. Here, we characterize the inherent optical properties, i.e. the scattering coefficient, μ s , and the anisotropy of scattering, g , of eight intact coral species using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we describe light scattering by coral skeletons, coenoarc tissues, polyp tentacles and areas covered by fluorescent pigments (FP). Our results reveal that light scattering between coral species ranges from μ s = 3 mm −1 ( Stylophora pistillata ) to μ s = 25 mm −1 ( Echinopora lamelosa ) . For Platygyra pini , μ s was 10-fold higher for tissue versus skeleton, while in other corals (e.g. Hydnophora pilosa ) no difference was found between tissue and skeletal scattering. Tissue scattering was threefold enhanced in coenosarc tissues ( μ s = 24.6 mm −1 ) versus...

Microscale light management and inherent optical properties of intact corals studied with optical coherence tomography

, , , , ,

Coral reefs are highly productive photosynthetic systems and coral optics studies suggest that such high efficiency is due to optimised light scattering by coral tissue and skeleton. Here, we characterise the inherent optical properties, i.e., the scattering coefficient, μ s , and the anisotropy of scattering, g , of 8 intact coral species using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we describe light scattering by coral skeletons, coenoarc tissues, polyp tentacles and areas covered by fluorescent pigments (FP). Our results reveal that light scattering between coral species ranges from μ s = 3 mm -1 ( Stylophora pistillata ) to μ s = 25 mm -1 ( Echinopora lamelosa ). For Platygyra pini , μ s was 10-fold higher for tissue vs skeleton, while in other corals (e.g., Hydnophora pilosa ) no difference was found between tissue and skeletal scattering. Tissue scattering was 3-fold enhanced in coenosarc tissues (μ s = 24.6 mm -1 ) vs polyp tentacles (μ s = 8.3 mm...

Feature Of The Week 03/05/2017: In Vivo Imaging of Coral Tissue and Skeleton with Optical Coherence Tomography

, , , ,

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive three-dimensional imaging technique with micrometer resolution allowing microstructural characterization of tissues in vivo and in real time. We present the first application of OCT for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals spanning a variety of morphologies and tissue thickness. OCT visualized different coral tissue layers (e.g. endoderm vs ectoderm), special structures such as mesenterial filaments and skeletal cavities, as well as mucus release from living corals. We also developed a new approach for non-invasive imaging and quantification of chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like host pigment granules in coral tissue. The chromatophore system is hyper-reflective and can thus be imaged with good optical contrast in OCT, enabling quantification of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. Because of its rapid imaging speed, OCT can also be used to quantify coral ti...

In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography

, , , ,

Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. In vivo tissue plasticity could be quantified by the linear contraction velocity of coral tissues upon illumination resulting in dynamic changes in the live coral tissue surface area, which varied by a factor of 2 between the contracted and expanded state of a coral. Our study provides a novel view on the in vivo organization of coral tissue and skeleton and highlights the importance of microstru...

In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography

, , , ,

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive three-dimensional imaging technique with micrometer resolution allowing microstructural characterization of tissues in vivo and in real time. We present the first application of OCT for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals spanning a variety of morphologies and tissue thickness. OCT visualized different coral tissue layers (e.g. endoderm vs ectoderm), special structures such as mesenterial filaments and skeletal cavities, as well as mucus release from living corals. We also developed a new approach for non-invasive imaging and quantification of chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like host pigment granules in coral tissue. The chromatophore system is hyper-reflective and can thus be imaged with good optical contrast in OCT, enabling quantification of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. Because of its rapid imaging speed, OCT can also be used to quantify coral ti...

Categories

Organizations in the News

OCT Companies in the News

Picture Gallery