John B. Miller

Sudden monocular vision loss after sneezing as captured on widefield swept source optical coherence tomography-angiography

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Purpose:  We report an unusual case of likely combined retinal artery occlusion and retinal vein occlusion following a sneeze. Widefield swept source optical coherence tomography-angiography (WF-SS-OCTA) was used to analyze retinal changes at one-month follow-up. Methods:  The patient reported visual symptoms in his left eye immediately after sneezing five times in a row. Fundus examination showed an embolus along the superior arcade. Stroke workup revealed moderate carotid artery stenosis and a subtherapeutic INR. At one-month follow-up, fundus photography and SS-OCTA were obtained. Results:  Fundus photography showed superior retinal whitening and arteriole attenuation, an inferior perifoveal cotton wool spot, and inferotemporal intraretinal hemorrhages. SS-OCTA showed loss of the deep capillary plexus superiorly and inferotemporally, most consistent with combined retinal artery and retinal vein occlusion. Conclusion:  We report the first case of sneeze-in...

Prevalence of venous loops and association with retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy using widefield swept-source OCT angiography

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Purpose To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients with retinal venous loops (RVLs) and to assess the association with retinal ischemia using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA). Methods In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, a total of 195 eyes of 132 diabetic patients (31 eyes with no diabetic retinopathy (DR), 76 eyes with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and 88 eyes with proliferative DR (PDR)) were imaged with WF SS-OCTA using Angio 6 × 6 mm and Montage 15 × 15 mm scans. Quantitative ischemia-related parameters, including ischemia index (ratio of nonperfusion area to total retinal area), foveal avascular zone (FAZ), and neovascularization features, were evaluated. RVLs were classified as type I or type II according to the branching level of the feeder vessel. A multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of systemic parameter...

A normative database of wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography quantitative metrics in a large cohort of healthy adults

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Purpose Data from healthy eyes is needed to interpret optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings. However, very little normative data is available for wide-field swept-source OCTA (WF SS-OCTA), particularly 12 × 12-mm and disc-centered angiograms. Therefore, we aim to report quantitative metrics in a large sample of control eyes. Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, 482 eyes of 375 healthy adults were imaged on the 100 kHz Zeiss PLEX® Elite 9000 using protocols centered on the fovea (3 × 3, 6 × 6, and 12 × 12-mm) and optic disc (6 × 6 and 12 × 12-mm) between December 2018 and January 2022. The ARI Network (Zeiss Portal v5.4) was used to calculate vessel density (VD) and vessel skeletonized density (VSD) in the superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus, and whole retina, as well as foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters. Mixed-effect multiple linear regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results The subjects’ m...

Characterising collateral vessels in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusions using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography

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Background/aims: To characterise the morphology, location and functional significance of both macular and extramacular collateral vessels (CVs) in patients with a history of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS OCTA). Methods: Patients with a history of BRVO underwent WF SS OCTA testing to acquire 12×12 mm images, which were evaluated for CVs and non-perfusion area (NPA). Region of interest analysis of individual CVs was performed to identify correlations between CV size, depth and retinal location. Mixed effects multivariate regression analyses of factors associated with NPA and visual acuity (VA) were performed. Results: Fifty-five CVs were identified in 28 BRVO eyes from 27 patients. CVs were identified in 42.9% (12/28) of eyes with a history of BRVO, and of these, 45.5% (25/55) were extramacular. The majority of CVs (87.3%, 48/55) coursed through both the superficial and the deep capillary plexus ...

Widefield Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Wagner Syndrome

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Purpose: To describe novel clinical and angiographic findings in Wagner syndrome. Methods: A retrospective case series of three related patients with Wagner syndrome. Patients underwent standard OCT, B-scan ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography in addition to wide field swept-source OCT angiography (WF SS-OCTA) (PLEX® Elite 9000, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.). Patients underwent genetic testing for a panel of hereditary vitreoretinopathies. Results: Three related patients with Wagner syndrome were identified. All were found to have prominent vitreous strands, abnormal vitreoretinal adhesions, peripheral retinal holes, and varying degrees of myopia. A mid-peripheral tractional ridge was identified in all 6 eyes. All patients were positive for a known pathologic intron variant in the VCAN gene (4004-5T-A). WF SS-OCTA (12 mm x 12 mm) was performed in two patients and demonstrated perivascular capillary loss in the superficial capillary plexus along the arcades bilaterally. One pa...

Peripapillary Vessel Density in Relation to Optic Disc Drusen: A Multimodal Optical Coherence Tomography Study

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Background: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are acellular calcified deposits within the optic nerve head known to cause visual field defects. An emerging gold standard for the diagnosis of ODD is enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The presence of ODD affects the adjacent peripapillary vasculature, which can be visualized using OCT angiography (OCTA). This study investigates the association between peripapillary vessel density and anatomical ODD location and volume using a newly developed method of multimodal OCT. Methods: A case–control study with 16 patients diagnosed with ODD in the period 2008–2017 and 24 healthy controls. All patients and controls had EDI-OCT, OCTA, and demographic data collected. Using EDI-OCT and the medical imaging segmentation tool ITK-SNAP, 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of ODD in patients were created. ODD 3D visualization and corresponding OCTA scans were superimposed, making it possible to correlate ODD volume to the per...

Retinal microvasculature and vasoreactivity changes in hypertension using optical coherence tomography-angiography

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Purpose: To evaluate the retinal vasculature and vasoreactivity of patients with hypertension (HTN) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). Methods: Patients with and without a diagnosis of HTN were included in this cross-sectional observational study. All eyes were imaged with SD-OCTA using 3 mm × 3 mm and 6 mm × 6 mm centered on both the fovea and optic disk. A second 6 mm × 6 mm scan was taken after a 30 s breath-hold. Vessel density (VD), vessel skeletonized density (VSD), and fractal dimension (FD) were calculated using customized MATLAB scripts. Vessel diameter index (VDI) was obtained by taking the ratio of VD to VSD. Vasoreactivity was measured by subtracting the VD or VSD before and after breath-hold (∆VD, ∆VSD). Results: Twenty-three eyes with HTN (17 patients) and 17 control eyes (15 patients) were included. In the 6 mm × 6 mm angiogram centered on fovea, the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) VD (ß = - 0.029...

Nonperfusion Area and Other Vascular Metrics by Wider Field Swept-Source OCT Angiography as Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy Severity

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Purpose: To study the wider field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) metrics, especially non-perfusion area (NPA), in the diagnosing and staging of DR. Design: Cross-sectional observational study (November 2018-September 2020). Participants: 473 eyes of 286 patients (69 eyes of 49 control patients and 404 eyes of 237 diabetic patients). Methods: We imaged using 6mm×6mm and 12mm×12mm angiograms on WF SS-OCTA. Images were analyzed using the ARI Network and FIJI ImageJ. Mixed effects multiple regression models and receiver operator characteristic analysis was used for statistical analyses. Main outcome measures: Quantitative metrics such as vessel density (VD); vessel skeletonized density (VSD); foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, circularity, and perimeter; and NPA in DR and their relative performance for its diagnosis and grading. Results: Among patients with diabetes (median age 59 years), 51 eyes had no DR, 185 eyes (88 mild, 97 moderate-se...

Juxtapapillary Choroidal Neovascular Membrane as a Complication of Optic Disc Drusen: Multimodal Imaging With Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the neuro-ophthalmology department for follow-up evaluation due to long-standing bilateral optic nerve head drusen (ONHD). On examination, the BCVA was 20/20-2 in both eyes. Dilated fundus examination revealed extensive ONHD in both eyes, retinal hemorrhages, exudates inferonasal to the macula, and macular edema inferotemporal to the disc margin. Automated visual field testing revealed generalized depression in both eyes. Late phase leakage was observed on fluorescein angiography (FA). Optical coherence tomography angiography identified a small juxtapapillary choroidal neovascular membrane inferonasal to the macula in the right eye correlating with the area of retinal hemorrhage and exudates. ( Read Full Article )

Remote Imaging Capture with Widefield Swept-Source OCT Angiography During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a widespread impact on the health sector worldwide, both in the clinical and research subsector. This has necessitated for the invention of protocols compliant with social distancing policies to efficiently tackle the current needs. Our aim is to describe a novel remote imaging technique, which helped us continue our research with widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA). Patients and Methods: As a part of this cross-sectional observational study from August 2020 to September 2020 at Massachusetts Eye and Ear (MEE), we used our institute approved remote desktop, outside of MEE, to gain full access to the on-site WF SS-OCTA device in the imaging room for the purpose of remote imaging. With only the patient being in the imaging room, effective communication was established via video conferencing on an encrypted tablet computer device for the entire procedure. Results: We imaged four patients with various retina...

Quantifying Retinal Microvascular Morphology in Schizophrenia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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Background: Retinovascular changes are reported on fundus imaging in schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first study to use swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to comprehensively examine retinal microvascular changes in SZ. Methods: This study included 30 patients with SZ/schizoaffective disorder (8 early and 15 chronic) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). All assessments were performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Eye and Ear. All participants underwent swept-source OCT-A of right (oculus dextrus [OD]) and left (oculus sinister [OS]) eye, clinical, and cognitive assessments. Macular OCT-A images (6 × 6 mm) were collected with the DRI Topcon Triton for superficial, deep, and choriocapillaris vascular regions. Microvasculature was quantified using vessel density (VD), skeletonized vessel density (SVD), fractal dimension (FD), and vessel diameter index (VDI). Results: Twenty-one HCs and 26 SZ subjects were included. Compared to HCs, ...

Wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in the assessment of retinal microvasculature and choroidal thickness in patients with myopia

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Background/aims: Pathological myopia (PM) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to evaluate microvascular and chorioretinal changes in different stages of myopia with wide-field (WF) swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This prospective cross-sectional observational study included 186 eyes of 122 patients who had undergone imaging between November 2018 and October 2020. Vessel density (VD) and vessel skeletonised density (VSD) of superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus and whole retina, as well as foveal avascular zone parameters, retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (CT), were calculated. Results: This study evaluated 75 eyes of 48 patients with high myopia (HM), 43 eyes of 31 patients with mild to moderate myopia and 68 eyes of 53 age-matched controls. Controlling for age and the presence of systemic hypertension, we found that HM was associated with decrease in VD and VSD in all layers on 12×12 mm&su...

Inter-device reliability of swept source and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and retinal layer differences in schizophrenia

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Introduction Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to study retinal structure in schizophrenia. Changes in retinal structure, especially the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) has been correlated with psychotic disorders. Measurement variability is a concern since there are various generations of OCT devices. We investigated the inter- and intra-device agreement of macular thickness between spectral domain (SD−OCT) and swept source−OCT (SS−OCT), and compared macula and peripapillary group differences in schizophrenia using SS−OCT. Methods Macular OCT thickness was obtained for schizophrenia (SZ, n = 30) and healthy controls (HC, n = 22) subjects using SD−OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) and SS−OCT (DRI Topcon Triton). Peripapillary thickness was obtained using SS−OCT. RNFL, ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex (GCL+), RNFL plus GCL+ (GCL++), and macular thickness were collected. Clinical and cognitive data were gat...

Wide Field Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Evaluation of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Associated Lesions: A Review

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Retinal imaging remains the mainstay for monitoring and grading diabetic retinopathy. The gold standard for detecting proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) requiring treatment has long been the seven-field stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. In the past decade, ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA) has become more commonly used in clinical practice for the evaluation of more advanced diabetic retinopathy. Since its invention, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been an important tool for the assessment of diabetic macular edema; however, OCT offered little in the assessment of neovascular changes associated with PDR until OCT-A became available. More recently, swept source OCT allowed larger field of view scans to assess a variety of DR lesions with wide field swept source optical coherence tomography (WF-SS-OCTA). This paper reviews the role of WF-SS-OCTA in detecting neovascularization of the disc (NVD), and elsewhere (NVE), microaneurysm...

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)


Ophthalmology has been at the forefront of medical specialties adopting artificial intelligence. This is primarily due to the "image-centric" nature of the field. Thanks to the abundance of patients' OCT scans, analysis of OCT imaging has greatly benefited from artificial intelligence to expand patient screening and facilitate clinical decision-making.In this review, we define the concepts of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning and how different artificial intelligence algorithms have been applied in OCT image analysis for disease screening, diagnosis, management, and prognosis.Finally, we address some of the challenges and limitations that might affect the incorporation of artificial intelligence in ophthalmology. These limitations mainly revolve around the quality and accuracy of datasets used in the algorithms and their generalizability, false negatives, and the cultural challenges around the adoption of the technology. ( Read Full Article )


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