Guangming Ni

Three-dimensional morphological revealing of human placental villi with common obstetric complications via optical coherence tomography

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Placental villi play a vital role in human fetal development, acting as the bridge of material exchange between the maternal and fetal. The abnormal morphology of placental villi is closely related to placental circulation disorder and pregnancy complications. Revealing placental villi three-dimensional (3D) morphology of common obstetric complications and healthy pregnancies provides a new perspective for studying the role of the placenta and its villi in the development of pregnancy diseases. In this study, we established a noninvasive, high-resolution 3D imaging platform via optical coherence tomography to reveal placental villi 3D morphological information of diseased and normal placentae. For the first time, 3D morphologies of placental villous tree structures in common obstetric complications were quantitatively revealed and corresponding 3D information could visualize the morphological characteristics of the placental villous tree from a more intuitive perspective, providing ...

Hybrid-structure network and network comparative study for deep-learning-based speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography

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Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a promising noninvasive bioimaging technique, can resolve sample three-dimensional microstructures. However, speckle noise imposes obvious limitations on OCT resolving capabilities. Here we proposed a deep-learning-based speckle-modulating OCT based on a hybrid-structure network, residual-dense-block U-Net generative adversarial network (RDBU-Net GAN), and further conducted a comprehensively comparative study to explore multi-type deep-learning architectures' abilities to extract speckle pattern characteristics and remove speckle, and resolve microstructures. This is the first time that network comparative study has been performed on a customized dataset containing mass more-general speckle patterns obtained from a custom-built speckle-modulating OCT, but not on retinal OCT datasets with limited speckle patterns. Results demonstrated that the proposed RDBU-Net GAN has a more excellent ability to extract speckle pattern characteristics and remove s...

Depth-resolved transverse-plane motion tracking with configurable measurement features via optical coherence tomography

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Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a promising noninvasive bioimaging technique, has become one of the most successful optical technologies implemented in medicine and clinical practice. Here we report a novel technique of depth-resolved transverse-plane motion tracking with configurable measurement features via optical coherence tomography, termed OCT-MT. Based on OCT circular scanning combined with speckle spatial oversampling, the OCT-MT technique can perform depth-resolved transverse-plane motion tracking. Benefitting from the optical interference and depth-resolved feature, the proposed OCT-MT can reduce the requirements on the input power of the irradiation signal and the surface reflectivity and roughness of the target, when performing motion tracking. Furthermore, OCT-MT can conduct such kind of motion tracking with configurable measurement ranges and resolutions by configuring A-line number per scanning circle, circular scanning radius, and A-line scanning time. The propos...

Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine (Book Chapter)

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In this chapter, we first introduce the basic working principles of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Three types of OCT, including time-domain, spectral-domain, and swept-source OCT are discussed. Functional OCT methods, including polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), spectroscopic OCT (S-OCT), optical coherence elastography (OCE), and OCT angiography (OCTA) are also described. Furthermore, recent advances in high-speed and high-resolution OCT technologies are reviewed. We also highlight several OCT applications in biomedicine, including ophthalmology, cardiovascular imaging, and oncology. Continuous innovations and further developments in the OCT field will generate long-lasting research and clinical impact in biology and medicine ( Read Full Article )

Single A-Line Method for Fast Sample-Structure-Nondependent Dispersion Compensation of FD-OCT

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Here we proposed a single A-line sample-structure-nondependent (SSNd) dispersion detection and compensation method for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), without need for acquiring and processing B-scan data. A new FD-OCT dispersion mismatch index, based on the line slope of the bright line in the A-line spectrogram, has been presented in the proposed method. With the new dispersion mismatch index, the proposed single A-line method can fast and visually detect the dispersion mismatch states of FD-OCT setup and perform the SSNd dispersion compensation, just using a single A-line. Experimental results of multiple samples demonstrated the advantages and convenience of the proposed method, and also proved that the proposed method can be used to analyze the relation of OCT imaging and optical path difference between the sample and reference arms. ( Read Full Article )

Self-assembling human heart organoids for the modeling of cardiac development and congenital heart disease | Nature Communications

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Congenital heart defects constitute the most common human birth defect, however understanding of how these disorders originate is limited by our ability to model the human heart accurately in vitro. Here we report a method to generate developmentally relevant human heart organoids by self-assembly using human pluripotent stem cells. Our procedure is fully defined, efficient, reproducible, and compatible with high-content approaches. Organoids are generated through a three-step Wnt signaling modulation strategy using chemical inhibitors and growth factors. Heart organoids are comparable to age-matched human fetal cardiac tissues at the transcriptomic, structural, and cellular level. They develop sophisticated internal chambers with well-organized multi-lineage cardiac cell types, recapitulate heart field formation and atrioventricular specification, develop a complex vasculature, and exhibit robust functional activity. We also show that our organoid platform can recreate complex meta...

Sm-Net OCT: a deep-learning-based speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography

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Speckle imposes obvious limitations on resolving capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT), while speckle-modulating OCT can efficiently reduce speckle arbitrarily. However, speckle-modulating OCT seriously reduces the imaging sensitivity and temporal resolution of the OCT system when reducing speckle. Here, we proposed a deep-learning-based speckle-modulating OCT, termed Sm-Net OCT, by deeply integrating conventional OCT setup and generative adversarial network trained with a customized large speckle-modulating OCT dataset containing massive speckle patterns. The customized large speckle-modulating OCT dataset was obtained from the aforementioned conventional OCT setup rebuilt into a speckle-modulating OCT and performed imaging using different scanning parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed Sm-Net OCT can effectively obtain high-quality OCT images without the electronic noise and speckle, and conquer the limitations of reducing the imaging sensitiv...

Detection and compensation of dispersion mismatch for frequency-domain optical coherence tomography based on A-scan’s spectrogram

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Balanced dispersion between reference and sample arms is critical in frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) to perform imaging with the optimal axial resolution, and the spectroscopic analysis of each voxel in FD-OCT can provide the metric of the spectrogram. Here we revisited dispersion mismatch in the spectrogram view using the spectroscopic analysis of voxels in FD-OCT and uncovered that the dispersion mismatch disturbs the A-scan’s spectrogram and reshapes the depth-resolved spectra in the spectrogram. Based on this spectroscopic effect of dispersion mismatch on A-scan’s spectrogram, we proposed a numerical method to detect dispersion mismatch and perform dispersion compensation for FD-OCT. The proposed method can visually and quantitatively detect and compensate for dispersion mismatch in FD-OCT, with visualization, high sensitivity, and independence from sample structures. Experimental results of tape and mouse eye suggest that this technique can be...

Towards Indicating Human Skin State In Vivo Using Geometry-Dependent Spectroscopic Contrast Imaging

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Skin plays a significant role in human body function and its collagen states change during the human skin ageing process, which affects skin function. We previously reported on geometry-dependent spectroscopic contrast achieved by spectroscopic micro-optical coherence tomography ( S μ OCT), which discovered that transversely oriented and regularly arranged nano-cylinders selectively backscatter the long-wavelength lights and generate spectral centroid (SC) shifts towards the long wavelengths within a spectral window of 700 − 950 nm . Here we further proposed a novel method towards indicating the state of human skin in vivo using geometry-dependent spectroscopic contrast imaging. The proposed method can obtain spectroscopic contrast images of different human skin layers, including the papillary dermis and reticular dermis, and provide a quantitative method towards indicating collagen state in human skin in vivo. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method may po...

Multiple aperture synthetic optical coherence tomography for biological tissue imaging

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An inherent compromise must be made between transverse resolution and depth of focus (DOF) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thus far, OCT has not been capable of providing a sufficient DOF to stably acquire cellular-resolution images. We previously reported a novel technique named multiple aperture synthesis (MAS) to extend the DOF in high-resolution OCT [Optica 4, 701 (2017)]. In this technique, the illumination beam is scanned across the objective lens pupil plane by being steered at the pinhole using a custom-made microcylindrical lens. Images captured via multiple distinctive apertures were digitally refocused, which is similar to synthetic aperture radar. In this study, we applied this technique for the first time to image both a homemade microparticle sample and biological tissue. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of high-resolution biological tissue imaging with a dramatic DOF extension. ( Read Full Article )

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