david d. sampson

Pilot study of optical coherence tomography angiography-derived microvascular metrics in hands and feet of healthy and diabetic people

, , , , , , ,

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging modality with growing application in dermatology and microvascular assessment. Accepted reference values for OCTA-derived microvascular parameters in skin do not yet exist but need to be established to drive OCTA into the clinic. In this pilot study, we assess a range of OCTA microvascular metrics at rest and after post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) in the hands and feet of 52 healthy people and 11 people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We calculate each metric, measure test–retest repeatability, and evaluate correlation with demographic risk factors. Our study delivers extremity-specific, age-dependent reference values and coefficients of repeatability of nine microvascular metrics at baseline and at the maximum of PORH. Significant differences are not seen for age-dependent microvascular metrics in hand, but they are present for several metrics in the foot. Signi...

Pilot study of optical coherence tomography angiography-derived microvascular metrics in hands and feet of healthy and diabetic peopl

, , , , , , ,

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging modality with growing application in dermatology and microvascular assessment. Accepted reference values for OCTA-derived microvascular parameters in skin do not yet exist but need to be established to drive OCTA into the clinic. In this pilot study, we assess a range of OCTA microvascular metrics at rest and after post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) in the hands and feet of 52 healthy people and 11 people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We calculate each metric, measure test–retest repeatability, and evaluate correlation with demographic risk factors. Our study delivers extremity-specific, age-dependent reference values and coefficients of repeatability of nine microvascular metrics at baseline and at the maximum of PORH. Significant differences are not seen for age-dependent microvascular metrics in hand, but they are present for several metrics in the foot. Signi...

Cocoa flavanol consumption improves lower extremity endothelial function in healthy individuals and people with type 2 diabetes

, , , , , , , , , , ,

Background : diabetes and age are major risk factors for the development of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Cocoa flavanol (CF) consumption is associated with lower risk for PAD and improves brachial artery (BA) endothelial function. Objectives : to assess if femoral artery (FA) endothelial function and dermal microcirculation are impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and evaluate the acute effect of CF consumption on FA endothelial function. Methods : in a randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 22 individuals ( n = 11 healthy, n = 11 T2DM) without cardiovascular disease were recruited. Participants received either 1350 mg CF or placebo capsules on 2 separate days in random order. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound of the common FA and the BA before and 2 hours after interventions. The cutaneous microvasculature was assessed using optical coherence tomography angiography. Results...

Multimodal imaging needle combining optical coherence tomography and fluorescence for imaging of live breast cancer cells labeled with a fluorescent analog of tamoxifen

, , , , , , , , , ,

Significance: Imaging needles consist of highly miniaturized focusing optics encased within a hypodermic needle. The needles may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue and have the potential to visualize diseased cells well beyond the penetration depth of optical techniques applied externally. Multimodal imaging needles acquire multiple types of optical signals to differentiate cell types. However, their use has not previously been demonstrated with live cells. Aim: We demonstrate the ability of a multimodal imaging needle to differentiate cell types through simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence imaging. Approach: We characterize the performance of a multimodal imaging needle. This is paired with a fluorescent analog of the therapeutic drug, tamoxifen, which enables cell-specific fluorescent labeling of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. We perform simultaneous OCT and fluorescence in situ imaging on MCF-7 ER+ breast cancer cells an...

Towards standardizing retinal optical coherence tomography angiography: a review

, , , ,

The visualization and assessment of retinal microvasculature are important in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and guidance of treatment of ocular and systemic diseases. With the introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), it has become possible to visualize the retinal microvasculature volumetrically and without a contrast agent. Many lab-based and commercial clinical instruments, imaging protocols and data analysis methods and metrics, have been applied, often inconsistently, resulting in a confusing picture that represents a major barrier to progress in applying OCTA to reduce the burden of disease. Open data and software sharing, and cross-comparison and pooling of data from different studies are rare. These inabilities have impeded building the large databases of annotated OCTA images of healthy and diseased retinas that are necessary to study and define characteristics of specific conditions. This paper addresses the steps needed to standardize OCTA imagi...

OCTAVA: An open-source toolbox for quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography angiography images

, , , , , , , , ,

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) performs non-invasive visualization and characterization of microvasculature in research and clinical applications mainly in ophthalmology and dermatology. A wide variety of instruments, imaging protocols, processing methods and metrics have been used to describe the microvasculature, such that comparing different study outcomes is currently not feasible. With the goal of contributing to standardization of OCTA data analysis, we report a user-friendly, open-source toolbox, OCTAVA (OCTA Vascular Analyzer), to automate the pre-processing, segmentation, and quantitative analysis of en face OCTA maximum intensity projection images in a standardized workflow. We present each analysis step, including optimization of filtering and choice of segmentation algorithm, and definition of metrics. We perform quantitative analysis of OCTA images from different commercial and non-commercial instruments and samples and show OCTAVA can accurately and re...

Imaging the small with the small: Prospects for photonics in micro-endomicroscopy for minimally invasive cellular-resolution bioimaging

, ,

Many bioimaging studies, including those in engineered tissue constructs, intravital microscopy in animal models, and medical imaging in humans, require cellular-resolution imaging of structures deep within a sample. Yet, many of the current approaches are limited in terms of resolution, but also in invasiveness, repeatable imaging of the same location, and accessible imaging depth. We coin the term micro-endomicroscope to describe the emerging class of small, cellular-resolution endoscopic imaging systems designed to image cells in situ while minimizing perturbation of the sample. In this Perspective, we motivate the need for further development of micro-endomicroscopes, highlighting applications that would greatly benefit, reviewing progress, and considering how photonics might contribute. We identify areas ripe for technological development, such as micro-scanners and small lens systems, that would advance micro-endomicroscope performance. With the right developments in photonics...

Detection of localized pulsatile motion in cutaneous microcirculation by speckle decorrelation optical coherence tomography angiography

, , , , ,

Significance: Pulsatility is a vital characteristic of the cardiovascular system. Characterization of the pulsatility pattern locally in the peripheral microvasculature is currently not readily available and would provide an additional source of information, which may prove important in understanding the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening, vascular ageing, and their linkage with cardiovascular disease development. Aim: We aim to confirm the suitability of speckle decorrelation optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) under various noncontact/contact scanning protocols for the visualization of pulsatility patterns in vessel-free tissue and in the microvasculature of peripheral human skin. Results: Results from five healthy subjects show distinct pulsatile patterns both in vessel-free tissue with either noncontact or contact imaging and in individual microvessels with contact imaging. Respectively, these patterns are likely caused by the pulsatile pressure and pulsatile blo...

Influence of tissue fixation on depth-resolved birefringence of oral cavity tissue samples

, , , , ,

Significance: To advance our understanding of the contrast observed when imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and its correlation with oral cancerous pathologies, a detailed comparison with histology provided via ex vivo fixed tissue is required. The effects of tissue fixation, however, on such polarization-based contrast have not yet been investigated. Aim: A study was performed to assess the impact of tissue fixation on depth-resolved (i.e., local) birefringence measured with PS-OCT. Approach: A PS-OCT system based on depth-encoded polarization multiplexing and polarization-diverse detection was used to measure the Jones matrix of a sample. A wide variety of ex vivo samples were measured freshly after excision and 24 h after fixation, consistent with standard pathology. Some samples were also measured 48 h after fixation. Results: The tissue fixation does not diminish the birefringence contrast. Statistically significant changes were observed i...

In vivo imaging of the depth-resolved optic axis of birefringence in human skin

, ,

Recent progress has enabled the reconstruction of the local (i.e., depth-resolved) optic axis (OAx) of biological tissue from measurements made with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Here we demonstrate local OAx imaging in healthy human skin in vivo . The images reveal dense, weaving patterns that are imperceptible in OCT intensity tomograms or conventional PS-OCT metrics and that suggest a mesh-like tissue organization, consistent with the morphology of dermal collagen. Using co-registered polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy, we furthermore investigated the impact of spatial resolution on the recovered OAx patterns and confirmed their consistency. OAx orientation as a contrast mechanism merits further exploration for applications in dermatology. ( Read Full Article )

Jones matrix‐based speckle‐decorrelation angiography using polarization‐sensitive optical coherence tomography

, , , ,

We show that polarization‐sensitive optical coherence tomography angiography (PS‐OCTA) based on full Jones matrix assessment of speckle decorrelation offers improved contrast and depth of vessel imaging over conventional OCTA. We determine how best to combine the individual Jones matrix elements and compare the resulting image quality to that of a conventional OCT scanner by co‐locating and imaging the same skin locations with closely matched scanning setups. Vessel projection images from finger and forearm skin demonstrate the benefits of Jones matrix‐based PS‐OCTA. Our study provides a promising starting point and a useful reference for future pre‐clinical and clinical applications of Jones matrix‐based PS‐OCTA. ( Read Full Article )

Parametric imaging of attenuation by optical coherence tomography: review of models, methods, and clinical translation

, , , , , ,

Significance: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional and volumetric images of backscattering from biological tissue that reveal the tissue morphology. The strength of the scattering, characterized by an attenuation coefficient, represents an alternative and complementary tissue optical property, which can be characterized by parametric imaging of the OCT attenuation coefficient. Over the last 15 years, a multitude of studies have been reported seeking to advance methods to determine the OCT attenuation coefficient and developing them toward clinical applications. Aim: Our review provides an overview of the main models and methods, their assumptions and applicability, together with a survey of preclinical and clinical demonstrations and their translation potential. Results: The use of the attenuation coefficient, particularly when presented in the form of parametric en face images, is shown to be applicable in various medical fields. Most studies show the promise...

Vectorial birefringence imaging by optical coherence microscopy for assessing fibrillar microstructures in the cornea and limbus

, , , , , ,

The organization of fibrillar tissue on the micrometer scale carries direct implications for health and disease but remains difficult to assess in vivo . Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography measures birefringence, which relates to the microscopic arrangement of fibrillar tissue components. Here, we demonstrate a critical improvement in leveraging this contrast mechanism by employing the improved spatial resolution of focus-extended optical coherence microscopy (1.4 µm axially in air and 1.6 µm laterally, over more than 70 µm depth of field). Vectorial birefringence imaging of sheep cornea ex vivo reveals its lamellar organization into thin sections with distinct local optic axis orientations, paving the way to resolving similar features in vivo . ( Read Full Article )

Recent progress in optical probing and manipulation of tissue: introduction

, , ,

This feature issue of Biomedical Optics Express represents a cross-section of the most recent work in tissue optics, including exciting developments in tissue optical clearing, deep tissue imaging, optical elastography, nanophotonics in tissue, and therapeutic applications of light, amongst others. A collection of 33 papers provides a comprehensive overview of current research in tissue optics, much of it inspired and informed by the pioneering work of Prof. Valery Tuchin. The issue contains three invited manuscripts and several mini-reviews that we hope will benefit researchers in this exciting area. ( Read Full Article )

Depth-resolved birefringence imaging of collagen fiber organization in the human oral mucosa in vivo

, , , , , ,

Stromal collagen organization has been identified as a potential prognostic indicator in a variety of cancers and other diseases accompanied by fibrosis. Changes in the connective tissue are increasingly considered for grading dysplasia and progress of oral squamous cell carcinoma, investigated mainly ex vivo by histopathology. In this study, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with local phase retardation imaging is used for the first time to visualize depth-resolved (i.e., local) birefringence of healthy human oral mucosa in vivo . Depth-resolved birefringence is shown to reveal the expected local collagen organization. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, 3D image stacks were acquired at labial and lingual locations of the oral mucosa, chosen as those most commonly affected by cancerous alterations. To enable an intuitive evaluation of the birefringence images suitable for clinical application, color depth-encoded en-face projections were generated. Compare...

Categories

Organizations in the News

OCT Companies in the News

Picture Gallery