Danuta M. Sampson

Pilot study of optical coherence tomography angiography-derived microvascular metrics in hands and feet of healthy and diabetic people

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Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging modality with growing application in dermatology and microvascular assessment. Accepted reference values for OCTA-derived microvascular parameters in skin do not yet exist but need to be established to drive OCTA into the clinic. In this pilot study, we assess a range of OCTA microvascular metrics at rest and after post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) in the hands and feet of 52 healthy people and 11 people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We calculate each metric, measure test–retest repeatability, and evaluate correlation with demographic risk factors. Our study delivers extremity-specific, age-dependent reference values and coefficients of repeatability of nine microvascular metrics at baseline and at the maximum of PORH. Significant differences are not seen for age-dependent microvascular metrics in hand, but they are present for several metrics in the foot. Signi...

Pilot study of optical coherence tomography angiography-derived microvascular metrics in hands and feet of healthy and diabetic peopl

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Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging modality with growing application in dermatology and microvascular assessment. Accepted reference values for OCTA-derived microvascular parameters in skin do not yet exist but need to be established to drive OCTA into the clinic. In this pilot study, we assess a range of OCTA microvascular metrics at rest and after post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) in the hands and feet of 52 healthy people and 11 people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We calculate each metric, measure test–retest repeatability, and evaluate correlation with demographic risk factors. Our study delivers extremity-specific, age-dependent reference values and coefficients of repeatability of nine microvascular metrics at baseline and at the maximum of PORH. Significant differences are not seen for age-dependent microvascular metrics in hand, but they are present for several metrics in the foot. Signi...

Cocoa flavanol consumption improves lower extremity endothelial function in healthy individuals and people with type 2 diabetes

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Background : diabetes and age are major risk factors for the development of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Cocoa flavanol (CF) consumption is associated with lower risk for PAD and improves brachial artery (BA) endothelial function. Objectives : to assess if femoral artery (FA) endothelial function and dermal microcirculation are impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and evaluate the acute effect of CF consumption on FA endothelial function. Methods : in a randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 22 individuals ( n = 11 healthy, n = 11 T2DM) without cardiovascular disease were recruited. Participants received either 1350 mg CF or placebo capsules on 2 separate days in random order. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound of the common FA and the BA before and 2 hours after interventions. The cutaneous microvasculature was assessed using optical coherence tomography angiography. Results...

Correcting magnification error in foveal avascular zone area measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography images with estimated axial length

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Background: To generate and validate a method to estimate axial length estimated (AL est ) from spherical equivalent (SE) and corneal curvature [keratometry (K)], and to determine if this AL est can replace actual axial length (AL act ) for correcting transverse magnification error in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images using the Littmann-Bennett formula. Methods: Data from 1301 participants of the Raine Study Gen2-20 year follow-up were divided into two datasets to generate (n = 650) and validate (n = 651) a relationship between AL, SE, and K. The developed formula was then applied to a separate dataset of 46 participants with AL, SE, and K measurements and OCTA images to estimate and compare the performance of AL est against AL act in correcting transverse magnification error in OCTA images when measuring the foveal avascular zone area (FAZA). Results: The formula for AL est yielded the equation: AL est = 2.102K - 0.4125SE + 7.268, R 2 = 0.794. There was good ag...

Towards standardizing retinal optical coherence tomography angiography: a review

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The visualization and assessment of retinal microvasculature are important in the study, diagnosis, monitoring, and guidance of treatment of ocular and systemic diseases. With the introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), it has become possible to visualize the retinal microvasculature volumetrically and without a contrast agent. Many lab-based and commercial clinical instruments, imaging protocols and data analysis methods and metrics, have been applied, often inconsistently, resulting in a confusing picture that represents a major barrier to progress in applying OCTA to reduce the burden of disease. Open data and software sharing, and cross-comparison and pooling of data from different studies are rare. These inabilities have impeded building the large databases of annotated OCTA images of healthy and diseased retinas that are necessary to study and define characteristics of specific conditions. This paper addresses the steps needed to standardize OCTA imagi...

OCTAVA: An open-source toolbox for quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography angiography images

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Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) performs non-invasive visualization and characterization of microvasculature in research and clinical applications mainly in ophthalmology and dermatology. A wide variety of instruments, imaging protocols, processing methods and metrics have been used to describe the microvasculature, such that comparing different study outcomes is currently not feasible. With the goal of contributing to standardization of OCTA data analysis, we report a user-friendly, open-source toolbox, OCTAVA (OCTA Vascular Analyzer), to automate the pre-processing, segmentation, and quantitative analysis of en face OCTA maximum intensity projection images in a standardized workflow. We present each analysis step, including optimization of filtering and choice of segmentation algorithm, and definition of metrics. We perform quantitative analysis of OCTA images from different commercial and non-commercial instruments and samples and show OCTAVA can accurately and re...

Detection of localized pulsatile motion in cutaneous microcirculation by speckle decorrelation optical coherence tomography angiography

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Significance: Pulsatility is a vital characteristic of the cardiovascular system. Characterization of the pulsatility pattern locally in the peripheral microvasculature is currently not readily available and would provide an additional source of information, which may prove important in understanding the pathophysiology of arterial stiffening, vascular ageing, and their linkage with cardiovascular disease development. Aim: We aim to confirm the suitability of speckle decorrelation optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) under various noncontact/contact scanning protocols for the visualization of pulsatility patterns in vessel-free tissue and in the microvasculature of peripheral human skin. Results: Results from five healthy subjects show distinct pulsatile patterns both in vessel-free tissue with either noncontact or contact imaging and in individual microvessels with contact imaging. Respectively, these patterns are likely caused by the pulsatile pressure and pulsatile blo...

RTVue XR AngioVue Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Software Upgrade Impacts on Retinal Thickness and Vessel Density Measurements

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Purpose : To determine the impact of an AngioVue software upgrade on total retinal thickness (RT) and inner retinal vessel density (VD) measurements derived from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Optovue OCTA images (3 × 3 mm) from 126 individuals (105 healthy eyes and 72 eyes with retinal disease) were acquired before an upgrade of the AngioVue software, which resulted in an inward shift of the outer boundary of the inner retinal vessels and improved Bruch's membrane segmentation. Total RT and inner retinal VD values were extracted before and after the software upgrade for comparison. Bias and limits of agreement (LA) were calculated. Results : The mean (SD) age of participants was 46 (17) years. Mean (LA) foveal RT increased by 3.0 (–11 to +17) and 3.7 (–11 to +18) µm ( P < 0.001) and parafoveal RT increased by 9.7 (–3.8 to +23) and 6.4 (–2.5 to +15) µm ( P < 0.001) in healthy and diseased retina, respectivel...

In vivo brain imaging with multimodal optical coherence microscopy in a mouse model of thromboembolic photochemical stroke

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We used a new multimodal imaging system that combines optical coherence microscopy and brightfield microscopy. Using this in vivo brain monitoring approach and cranial window implantation, we three-dimensionally visualized the vascular network during thrombosis, with high temporal (18 s) and spatial (axial, 2.5  μm; lateral, 2.2  μm) resolution. We used a modified mouse model of photochemical thromboembolic stroke in order to more accurately parallel human stroke. Specifically, we applied green laser illumination to focally occlude a branch of the middle cerebral artery. Despite the recanalization of the superficial arteries at 24 h after stroke, no blood flow was detected in the small vessels within deeper regions. Moreover, after 24 h of stroke progression, scattering signal enhancement was observed within the stroke region. We also evaluated the infarct extent and shape histologically. In summary, we present a novel approach for real-time mouse b...

Clinical validation of the RTVue optical coherence tomography angiography image quality indicators

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Importance All automated image quality indicators for en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images require gold standard validation for determining optimal thresholds. Background A manual grading system (gold standard) for OCTA images was validated and compared to two automated image quality indicators: signal strength index (SSI) and scan quality index (SQI) generated by different software versions of the Optovue OCTA device. Design Retrospective cross‐sectional study. Participants 52 eyes of 52 healthy individual and 77 eyes of 51 patients with retinal vascular diseases. Methods 129 OCTA images of the superficial vascular plexus were graded manually by 3 independent examiners. Each image was assigned grades 1 to 4 (1‐2; unacceptable, 3‐4; acceptable) masked to the software‐generated quality indicators. Main outcome measures Inter‐grader agreement and comparison of the utility of SSI and SQI in discriminating between acceptable and unacceptable OCTA images. Result...

Posterior Choroidal Stroma Reduces Accuracy of Automated Segmentation of Outer Choroidal Boundary in Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

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Purpose : To determine the influence of choroidal boundary morphology on the accuracy of automated measurements of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). Methods : A retrospective image analysis of foveal-centered horizontal line scans from normal and diseased eyes using the Topcon DRI OCT-1 Atlantis SSOCT was conducted. Subfoveal choroid-scleral junction (CSJ) and retina-choroidal junction (RCJ) morphologies were graded by two observers. Automated SFCT (A-SFCT) was compared with manual SFCT (M-SFCT) measurements from Bruch's membrane to the posterior limits of choroidal vessel, hyperreflective stroma, and hyporeflective lamina fusca. Agreement in boundary grading was assessed by Cohen's kappa. A-SFCT and M-SFCT were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and paired t -tests. Results : A total of 200 eyes of 100 patients with a mean (SD) age of 62 (18) years were included. The choroidal vessel, stromal, and lamina fusca boundaries we...

Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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Purpose : To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods : Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Results : Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18–74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was −1.65 (−8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27–28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for ...

Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging

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Purpose To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities. Methods En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory) and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering)) were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) and microperimetry. Results Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch’s membrane (BM). Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar qualit...

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